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Bremen Cathedral

The oldest visible structures are the two crypts. The last parts built in romanesque style and in sandstone were the lower storeys of the western façade and the western towers. Since the late s, vaults and walls were erected in bricks, partly hidden by sheets of sandstone.

Only the outer wall of the southern investiție în criptă pumb of chapels shows unhidden bricks.

St Peter's is one of the largest historic brick structures in Europe, but it comprises too many stone structures to be subsumed to Brick Gothic. During the great restoration of tothe western towers and most of the western façade were rebuilt relatively close to previous structures. The crossing tower was a new addition, using the medieval crossing tower of Worms Cathedral as an example.

The roofs above the transepts and the northern aisle were redesigned.

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Early buildings[ edit ] Bremen Cathedral inthe collapsed southern belfry is hidden behind the stock exchange The first church structure that can be verified on the site of St Peter's Cathedral in Bremen was a timber church on a high point overseeing the Weser River built by Saint Willehadan early missionary to the Frisians. The church was built about in conjunction with the creation of the Diocese of Bremen, with Willehad as the first bishop.

Willehad died the same year. No trace of it remains. The see opțiuni binare indicator alfa profit vacant for thirteen years until it was reestablished under Bishop Willerich in St Peter's was built as the cathedral church of local sandstone in several stages by Bishop Willerich.

He was one of the most prominent missionaries to northern Europe and is credited with the beginnings of the conversion of the Danes and Swedes to Christianity.

He was succeeded by Archbishop Rimbert. There was a cathedral school and cloister.

Early in the tenure of Archbishop Adalbrand the church was in the process of being rebuilt and enlarged, but in most of Bremen including the cathedral was destroyed by a terrible fire. The fire also destroyed much of the cathedral library. Bishop Adalbrand ordered the building rebuilt inbut died before it could be completed. The cathedral was rebuilt as a pillared basilica with rounded Romanesque style arches and a flat timber ceiling. Two stubby, flat-topped towers were added to the west front.

A crypt was built under the west part of the nave.

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The building plan was based on the cruciform shape of the cathedral at Benevento in Campania, Italy which Adalbert was familiar with.

He also brought craftsmen from Lombardy to make repairs and investiție în criptă pumb the cathedral, much to the consternation of local builders and artists.

Adalbert ignored the criticism and forced his vision for the cathedral. On Adalbert's orders parts of the fortification of the cathedral district  [ de ] not the unwalled market town beside were torn down to provide low-cost stone for the cathedral.

Adalbert's short-sightedness resulted in Saxons sacking the city and the cathedral in Inthe archidiocese lost most of his administrative power to the newly established archbishopric of Lund. Dominant structures of the present building[ edit ] Seal of the City of Bremen fromshowing the cathedral with s rose window During the rule Prince-Archbishop Gerhard IIthe conditions for works on the cathedral improved: On Christmas the rivalry of Bremen and Hamburg was finished by a papal decision, Bremen became the only see of the archbishopric.

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In Marchanother papal decree authorized an indulgence campaign to subsidize a "repair" of the cathedral. The construction of the lower storeys of the western façade and towers — in pure romanesque style — may have begun before the decree and even before the onset of Gerhard's rule.

Between the towers, a rose window was added, it has already been depicted in Bremen's first municipal seal, cut in Than, successively and most of it under the same rule, at first the two westernmost bays of the nave were vaulted still almost Romance stylethen the aisles in very early Gothic architecturethen central nave, choir, crossing and transept in advanced early Gothic style.

Differing from the Romance parts, the vaults and new walls were constructed in brick as were many other large ecclesiastic and public buildings in northern Europe. Central nave and choir have double bays with six sections each.

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The pillars at their corners are supported by flying buttresses since —'22 only on the southern side. The pillars of the middling ribs, carrying only one fourth or eighth of the weight, have none, except of the choir, where they were added as late as in The oldest vaults are above the main organ, in the west.

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Southern aisle, vaulted before central nave, choir, crossing and transept Northern aisle, repaired and raised to the height of the central nave in to late gothic style Pulpit ofsouthern wall of the central nave rather romance: arcade with round arches, no triforium The choir has a romanesque floorplan At Easter Prince-Archbishop Burchard Grelle claimed to have found the skulls of the Saints Cosmas and Damian.

He "personally 'miraculously' retrieved the relics of the holy physicians Cosmas and Damian, which were allegedly immured and forgotten in the quire of Bremen Cathedral.

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In about the cathedral master-builder Johann Hemeling commissioned a shrine for the relics, which has been accomplished until after The shrine from carved oak wood covered with gilt rolled silver is considered an important mediaeval gold work. It is now shown in the Jesuit church of St Michael in Munich. Under Prince-Archbishop Johann Rodeofficiating between investiție în criptă pumbthe basilica style church was further transformed into a German "High Gothic" style church with a new northern nave.

Bremen Cathedral

While the municipality of Bremen had gained more and more independence from the archbishopric, the cathedral remained under the control of the chapter and the archbishops. The municipality was divided in four parishes.

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Even the laic inhabitants of the cathedral immunity had a special parish church, Saint Willehadus chapel. The cathedral was the church of the clergy and for special religious celebrations and special events of the archbishopric. The cathedral and its district were included by the municipal fortifications, but politically they formed an exclave. Protestantism in Bremen[ edit ] When the Protestant Reformation swept through northern Germany, the first Reformed sermon in Bremen was held inand in the city established a Protestant rule of churches.

The cathedral chapter was still catholic and closed St Peter's cathedral, after on Palm Sunday of a delegation of Bremen's revolutionary Council of the men de.

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