Merchants in antiquity[ edit ] Phoenician trade route map Merchants have existed as long as humans have conducted business, trade or commerce. Open-air, public markets, where merchants and traders congregated, functioned in ancient Babylonia and Assyria, China, Egypt, Greece, India, Persia, Phoenicia and Rome.
Registrele obligatorii pentru comercianţi sunt: registrul jurnal, registrul inventar şi registrul copier. Acest registru jurnal este deosebit de alte registre ce se obisnuiesc în contabilitatea comercială, dar care nu sunt obligatorii. Acest inventar şi bilanţ le va copia în registrul special pentru aceasta şi le va semna.
These markets typically occupied a place in the town's centre. Surrounding the market, skilled artisans, such as metal-workers and leather workers, occupied premises in alley ways that led to the open market-place. These artisans may have sold wares directly from their premises, but also prepared goods for sale on market days.
The Forum Boarium, one of a series of fora venalia or food markets, originated, as its name suggests, as a cattle market. The Roman forum was arguably the earliest example of a permanent retail shop-front. Relationships between merchant and consumer were minimal  often playing into public concerns about the quality of produce.
Phoenician merchant traders imported and exported wood, textiles, glass and produce such as wine, oil, dried fruit and nuts. Their trading necessitated a network of colonies along the Mediterranean coast, stretching from modern-day Crete through to Tangiers in present-day Morocco and northward to Sardinia. The Phoenicians' extensive trade networks necessitated considerable book-keeping and correspondence. In around BCE, the Phoenicians developed a script which was much easier to learn that the pictographic systems used in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia.
Phoenician traders and merchants were largely responsible for spreading their alphabet around the region. Merchants were those who bought and sold completarea opțiunilor binare de la 10 ruble, while landowners who sold their own produce were not classed as merchants.
Being a landowner was a "respectable" occupation. On the other hand, the Romans did not consider the activities of merchants "respectable".
His villa, situated in one of the wealthier districts of Pompeii, was very large and ornately decorated in a show of substantial personal wealth. Mosaic patterns in the floor of his atrium were decorated with images of amphorae bearing his personal brand and inscribed with quality claims.
Scauras' fish sauce had a reputation for very high quality listă de semnale pentru opțiuni binare the Mediterranean; its fame travelled as far away as modern southern France. In the Roman world, local merchants served the needs of the wealthier landowners.
While the local peasantry, who were generally poor, relied on open-air market places to buy and sell produce and wares, major producers such as the great estates were sufficiently attractive for merchants to call directly at their farm-gates.
The very wealthy landowners managed their own distribution, which may have involved exporting. Both Greek and Roman merchants engaged in long-distance trade.
The Romans sold purple and yellow dyes, brass and iron; they acquired incense, balsamexpensive liquid myrrh and spices from the Near East and India, fine silk from China  and fine white marble destined for the Roman wholesale market from Arabia.
Blintiff has investigated the early Medieval networks of market towns and suggests that by the 12th century there was an upsurge in the number of market towns and the emergence of merchant circuits as traders bulked up surpluses from smaller regional, different day markets and resold them at the larger centralised market towns. Peddlers or itinerant merchants filled any gaps in the distribution system.
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Medieval merchants began to trade in exotic goods imported from distant shores including spices, wine, food, furs, fine cloth notably silkglass, jewellery and many other luxury goods. Market towns began to spread across the landscape during the medieval period.
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Merchant guilds began to form during the Medieval period. A fraternity formed by the merchants of Tiel in Gelderland in present-day Netherlands in is believed to be the first example of a guild. The term, guild was first used for gilda mercatoria and referred to body of merchants operating out of St. Omer, France in the 11th century.
Comerț cu amănuntul
Similarly, London's Hanse was formed in the 12th century. Rules established by merchant guilds were often incorporated into the charters granted to market towns. In the early 12th century, a confederation of merchant guilds, formed out the German cities of Lubeck and Hamburg, known as "The Comerțul comerciantului cu ora League " came to dominate trade around the Baltic Sea.
By the 13th and 14th centuries, merchant guilds had sufficient resources to have erected guild halls in many major market towns. Merchants specialised in financing, organisation and transport while agents were domiciled overseas and acted on behalf of a principal. These arrangements first appeared on the route from Italy to the Levant, but by the end of the thirteenth century merchant colonies could be found from Paris, London, Bruges, Seville, Barcelona and Montpellier. Over time these partnerships became more commonplace and led to the development of large trading companies.
These developments also triggered innovations such as double-entry book-keeping, commercial accountancy, international banking including access comerțul comerciantului cu ora lines of credit, marine insurance and commercial courier services. These developments are sometimes known as the commercial revolution. He found that there were many different types of merchants operating out of the markets.
For example, in the dairy trade, cheese and butter was sold by the members of two craft guilds i. Resellers and direct sellers increased the number of sellers, thus increasing competition, to the benefit of consumers. Direct sellers, who brought produce from the surrounding countryside, sold their wares through the central market place and priced their goods at considerably lower rates than cheesemongers.
From through to the s a large number of European chartered and comerțul comerciantului cu ora companies were established to exploit international trading opportunities. The Company of Merchant Adventurers of Londonchartered incontrolled most of the fine cloth imports  while the Hanseatic League controlled most of the trade in the Baltic Sea.
A detailed study of European trade between the thirteenth and fifteenth century demonstrates that the European age of discovery acted as a major driver of comerțul comerciantului cu ora. Ingoods travelled relatively short distances: grain 5—10 miles; cattle 40—70 miles; wool and wollen cloth 20—40 miles. However, in the years following the opening up of Asia and the discovery of the New World, goods were imported from very long distances: calico cloth from India, porcelain, silk and tea from China, spices from India and South-East Asia and tobacco, sugar, rum and coffee from the New World.
The local markets, where people purchased their daily needs were known as tianguis while pochteca referred to long-distance, professional merchants traders who obtained rare goods and luxury items desired by the nobility.
Comerțul cu amănuntul în antichitate[ modificare modificare sursă ] Piețele de desfacere datează din cele mai vechi timpuri.
This trading system supported various levels of pochteca — from very high status merchants through to minor traders who acted as a type of peddler to fill in gaps in the distribution system. The Mexica Aztec market of Tlatelolco was the largest in all the Americas and said to be superior to those in Europe. An emergent middle class or bourgeoisie stimulated demand for luxury goods, and the act of shopping came to be seen as a pleasurable pass-time or form of entertainment.
Несмотря на подавленность критической способности рассудка, столь характерную для сна, Джезерак на миг подумал: как же Ярлан Зей может говорить с таким знанием дела о вещах, которые произошли спустя миллиард лет. Это было очень запутанно. он не понимал, в какой именно точке пространства и времени он пребывает. Путешествие близилось к концу; стены туннеля больше не проносились мимо с головокружительной скоростью. Ярлан Зей заговорил с требовательностью и властностью, которых до того не - Прошлое позади; мы сделали свое дело, во благо или во вред, и с этим покончено.
Daniel Defoea London merchant, published information on trade and economic resources of England, Scotland and India. His many publications include titles devoted to trade including; Trade of Britain Stated, ; Trade of Scotland with France, ; The Trade to India Critically and Calmly Considered, and A Plan of the English Commerce ; all pamphlets that were highly popular with contemporary merchants and business houses.
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The historian, Vannneste, has argued that a new cosmopolitan merchant mentality based on trust, reciprosity and a culture of communal support developed and helped to unify the early modern world. Given that these cosmopolitan merchants were embedded within their societies and participated in the highest level of exchange, they transferred a more outward-looking mindset and system of values to their commercial exchange transactions, and also helped to disseminate a more global awareness to broader society and therefore acted as agents of change for local society.
Successful, open-minded cosmopolitan merchants began to acquire a more esteemed social position with the political elites. They were often sought as advisors for high-level political agents  By the eighteenth century, a new type of manufacturer-merchant was emerging and modern business practices were becoming evident.
Many merchants held showcases of goods in their private homes for the benefit of wealthier clients. He also inferred that selling at lower prices would lead to higher demand and recognised the value of achieving scale economies in production.
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By cutting costs and lowering prices, Wedgewood was able to generate higher overall profits. He also practiced planned obsolescence and understood the importance of "celebrity marketing" — that is supplying the nobility, often at prices below cost and of obtaining royal patronage, for the sake of the publicity and kudos generated.
They tended not to specialise in particular types of merchandise, often trading as general merchants, selling a diverse range of product types. These merchants were concentrated in the larger cities. They often provided high levels of credit financing for retail transactions.
At this time, the economy was undergoing profound changes — capitalism emerged as the dominant social organisation replacing earlier modes of production. Merchants were importing produce from afar — grain from the Baltic, textiles from England, wine from Germany and metals from various countries. Antwerp was the centre of this new commercial world. The public began to distinguish between two types of merchant, the meerseniers which were local merchants including bakers, grocers, sellers of dairy products comerțul comerciantului cu ora stall-holders, and the koopman, comerțul comerciantului cu ora were a new, emergent class of trader who dealt in goods or credit on a large scale.
With the rise of a European merchant class, this distinction was necessary to separate the daily trade that the general population understood from the rising ranks comerțul comerciantului cu ora traders who operated comerțul comerciantului cu ora a world stage and were seen as quite distant from everyday experience.
For instance, Hans Holbein the younger painted a series of portraits of Hanseatic merchants working out of London's Steelyard in the s. In recent art: Dutch photographer Loes Heerink spend hours on bridges in Hanoi to take pictures of Vietnamese street Merchants. Cornelis van der Geest, merchant of Antwerp, by Anthony van Dyckc.